In a meta sense, none obviously. But I'm talking in-universe.
There's been this persistent theme that Batman caused the emergence of all his crazier foes, which made me wonder if that's indeed the case with all of them, or if some of them might have come to be even without Batman existing.
I can see Penguin existing in a world without Batman easily enough. Hell, he might just have thrived in the criminal underworld since he could just focus on his criminal enterprises without the distractions of being a 'Batman villain'.
I think Riddler would still have existed. Maybe he wouldn't have adopted the costumed persona of 'the Riddler', but Edward Nygma would still be out there making trouble for the authorities with his riddles no doubt.
Scarecrow too I think has an origin largely independent of Batman.
Two Face is a tricky case. One can argue that Harvey Dent wouldn't have risen to such prominence as to have Sal Maroni in the dock without Batman. Alternatively, he might just have stepped up to the plate a lot sooner and gotten killed otherwise. Assuming his career would have panned out mostly the same, I think there's a reasonable chance he would have ended with the acid in his face and becoming Two Face.
Hugo Strange...well I don't see how Batman not existing would affect his making Monster Men. Of course the psychological obsession with Batman wouldn't be a thing.
Don't think Clayface's origin has anything to do with Batman either. Ditto with Poison Ivy.
Mr. Freeze? Well the New 52 version had Bruce Wayne involved, but if you go by the more classic version, I don't think it would be affected.
The one villain who I'm pretty sure wouldn't exist without Batman is Joker, because pretty much every version of his origin has Batman inadvertantly dropping him in that vat of chemicals. That's not to say that he couldn't still be a villain as Red Hood though, going by some versions.
So the scary fact is that most of Batman's rogue's gallery might have been running unchecked in Gotham had Batman not existed.